A critical discussion of the thesis by Martin Schelberg, PhD: The Meaning of Large Companies Corporate Social Responsibility for Enterprise Management, Economic Success and Social Balance in Globalising Europe
Submitted to the Faculty of Management and Economics of the Tomas Bata University in Zlín, in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Research Supervisor: doc.PhDr. Olga Březinová, CSc.. Reviewers: doc. Ing. Zdenek Dytrt, CSc., prof. Ing. Tatiana Čorejová PhD. Date of defence: December 2008. → Download TBU DSpace
The barcode displays a visualization of the pages that contain plagiarism, not the amount of plagiarism in the main text. Depending on the amount of plagiarized text there are three colors that are used:
- black: up to 50 % of the lines on the page are plagiarized
- dark red: between 50 % and 75 % of the lines on the page are plagiarized
- light red: over 75 % of the lines on the page are plagiarized.
White pages have either not yet been investigated or nothing was found. Blue pages contain matter such as the title page, the table of contents, the reference section, empty pages and appendices. These are all not included in the calculations.
The barcode only shows the current state of the investigation. This is not the final result, as each case may continue to be worked on and added to by anyone as new sources turn up. Thus, a final state does not exist.
There are 27 pages containing plagiarism.
Pages with less than 50% plagiarism
Pages with between 50%-75% plagiarism
Pages with more than 75% plagiarism
- Steurer et al. (2008) is the source for about three pages that have been taken via copy-paste, but is not mentioned in the thesis anywhere.
- Several Wikipedia articles have been used as sources, but none has been referenced in the thesis:
- Wikipedia - Konrad Adenauer (2007): About two pages
- Wikipedia - Ordoliberalism (2007): About half a page
- Wikipedia - Freiburg School (2007): Two sentences
- Wikipedia - Social Market Economy (2007): About half a page
- Wikipedia - Adam Smith (2007): One paragraph
- Wikipedia - Corporate social responsibility (2007): Two passages
- Wikipedia - Charles Spearman (2007): One footnote
- Mackey et al. (2007) is mentioned in the dissertation several times, but it does not become clear to the reader that the pages 56-63 have been copied from this source with only marginal modifications.
- Fragment 079 01: A figure has been taken from Steurer et al. (2008) and given the attribution "author’s illustration".
- Fragment 024 04: A page has been taken literally from the Wikipedia without mentioning the source.
- Fragment 078 01: Copy-Paste artifacts show that an entire page has been copied from a digital version of the source.
- Fragment 058 01: Copying text across the turn of a page leads to the insertion of a part of a footnote into the main body of the text and a confusion of its meaning.
- On page 26, line 24, a long, literal citation of the European commission document COM(2001) 366 final starts, which ends on the bottom of page 33. The source is given and one could argue that the paragraph numbers indicate that all this text is in fact taken from that source literally, so these pages have not been documented as plagiarism, but the question arises as to what purpose such a long citation serves. It spans ca. 10% of the thesis and there is no discussion of the material cited.
- On page 13, line 11, a long, literal citation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church starts (see , ), which ends on the bottom of page 21. The source is given and one could argue that paragraph numbers in the text indicate that the text has been copied verbatim, although the introductory phrase "The Catechism leads to these conclusions:" on page 13 and the footnote 10 could also be interpreted as presenting a paraphrasing summary of the numerous paragraphs in the Catechism, which is not the case. Those pages have not been documented as plagiarism, but the question arises as to what purpose such a long citation serves. It spans more than 10% of the thesis and there is no discussion of the material cited.
- Some text appears twice in the thesis:
- Page 12, lines 9-26, are identical to page 46, lines 12-30.
- Page 58, lines 38-47 are identical to page 69, lines 12-20; see also Fragment 069 12
- Two reviews by the thesis examiners are available online, two excerpts are documented here:
- Review 1 (17.11.2008): "Author considers that CSR is suitable way how to change current managerial thinking which describe from different point of views, e. g. historical progress in religious aspect."
- Review 2 (17.11.2008): "The dissertation is written very cultivate, digest at the high academic level."
- The Tomas Bata University appears to have been taking active measures to reduce plagiarism in student theses. 
- The following pages have been excluded from the analysis:
- Currently there are 34 reviewed fragments documented that are considered to be violations of citation rules. For 18 of them there is no reference given to the source used („Verschleierungen“ and „Komplettplagiate“). For 16 fragments the source is given, but the extent of the used text is not made clear („Bauernopfer“).
- The publication has 65 pages that have been analyzed. On a total of 27 of these pages violations of citation rules have been documented. This represents a percentage of 41.5%. The 65 analyzed pages break down with respect to the amount of text parallels encountered as follows:
- From these statistics an extrapolation of the amount of text of the publication under investigation that has been documented as problematic can be estimated (conservatively) as about 24% of the main part of the publication.
- In all, text was taken from 16 sources.
The following chart illustrates the amount and the distribution of the text parallel findings. The colours show the type of plagiarism diagnosed:
- grau="Komplettplagiat" (copy & paste): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copy is verbatim.
- rot="Verschleierung" (disguised plagiarism): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copied text will be somewhat modified.
- gelb="Bauernopfer" (pawn sacrifice): the source of the text parallel is mentioned, but the extent and/or the closeness of the copy to the source is not made clear by the reference.
- CC = Catechism of the Catholic Church (verbatim, not counted in total)
- GP = EU Green Paper (verbatim, not counted in total)
Definitions of plagiarism categories
The plagiarism categories used here are based on the discussion found at Wohnsdorf / Weber-Wulff: Strategien der Plagiatsbekämpfung, 2006. A complete description of the categories (in German) can be found at the VroniPlag-Wiki. In particular, the categories are:
A translation plagiarism is based on a text in a differentlanguage than the text of the thesis and represents a word for word or literal translation. The difference between paraphrase (which is properly referenced) and translation plagiarism is sometimes seen as hard to judge.
Komplettplagiat (copy and paste)
The source of the text parallel is not given, the copy is verbatim.
Verschleierung (disguised plagiarism)
The source of the text parallel is not given, the copied text will be somewhat modified or disguised.
Bauernopfer (pawn sacrifice)
The source of the text parallel is mentioned, but the extent and/or closeness of the copying is not made clear by the reference.
Sources tabulated by plagiarism category
The following table lists all of the reviewed fragments by source (rows) and by plagiarism category (columns).
- ÜP = Translation plagiarism,
- KP = Copy and paste,
- VS = Disguised plagiarism,
- BO = Pawn sacrifice,
- KW = No opinion,
- KeinP = Not plagiarism.
|Source||Year||ÜP||KP||VS||BO||KW||KeinP||∑||To be reviewed||In progress|
|Daimler Sustainability Report||2008||0||0||0||3||0||0||3||0||0|
|Mackey et al||2007||0||1||0||9||0||0||10||0||0|
|Steurer et al||2008||0||3||0||0||0||0||3||0||0|
|Wikipedia Adam Smith||2007||0||1||0||0||0||0||1||0||0|
|Wikipedia Charles Spearman||2007||0||1||0||0||0||0||1||0||0|
|Wikipedia Corporate social responsibility||2007||0||2||0||0||0||0||2||0||0|
|Wikipedia Freiburg School||2007||0||1||0||0||0||0||1||0||0|
|Wikipedia Konrad Adenauer||2007||0||1||1||0||0||0||2||0||0|
|Wikipedia Social Market Economy||2007||0||2||0||0||0||0||2||0||0|
34 reviewed fragments
|Msc/Fragment 012 02||12||2-8||StudyMode 2008||1||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 023 03||23||3-19||Wikipedia Social Market Economy 2007||Internetquelle||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 023 20||23||20-21||Wikipedia Freiburg School 2007||Internetquelle||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 023 22||23||22-45||Wikipedia Ordoliberalism 2007||Internetquelle||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 023 46||23||46-47||Wikipedia Social Market Economy 2007||Internetquelle||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 024 04||24||4-48||Wikipedia Konrad Adenauer 2007||Internetquelle||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 025 01||25||1-27, 28-32||Wikipedia Konrad Adenauer 2007||Internetquelle||-||Verschleierung|
|Msc/Fragment 034 07||34||7-9||Mgmtguru 2006||1 (internet version)||-||Verschleierung|
|Msc/Fragment 034 12||34||12-33||Mgmtguru 2006||1 (online source)||-||Verschleierung|
|Msc/Fragment 037 26||37||26-33||Imparato 1995||1 (internet version)||-||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 038 06||38||1-2, 6-9||Imparato 1995||1 (online source)||-||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 039 18||39||18-22||Wikipedia Corporate social responsibility 2007||1 (online source)||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 040 34||40||34-39||Wikipedia Corporate social responsibility 2007||1 (online source)||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 056 01||56||1, 3ff.||Mackey et al 2007||817f||817: left col.. 1 ff; 819: left col., 1ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 057 01||57||1 ff.||Mackey et al 2007||818f||818: right col., lines 9ff; 819: left col., 1ff||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 058 01||58||1 ff. (entire page)||Mackey et al 2007||819, 820||819: right col., lines 22ff; 820: left col., 1 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 059 01||59||1 ff.||Mackey et al 2007||820, 830||820: right col., 18 ff.; 830: left col.: 4 ff.; 11: left col.: 1 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 060 01||60||1 ff.||Mackey et al 2007||830-831||830: right col.: 30 ff; 831: left column, 1ff||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 061 01||61||1 ff.||Mackey et al 2007||831||right col.: 23 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 062 01||62||1 ff.||Mackey et al 2007||832f||right col.: 22 ff., 833: left col., 1ff||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 063 01||63||1 ff.||Mackey et al 2007||833||right col.: 25 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 066 101||66||101-102||Wikipedia Charles Spearman 2007||1||-||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 068 04||68||4-8||Zairi 2008||10||8ff||Verschleierung|
|Msc/Fragment 069 12||69||12-20||Mackey et al 2007||820||l.col: 33 ff.||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 069 24||69||24-37||Mackey et al 2007||823, 824||823: r.col: 34 ff.; 824: l.col: 1 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 071 05||71||5-46||Daimler Sustainability Report 2008||9||left col.: 6 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 072 01||72||1ff (entire page)||Daimler Sustainability Report 2008||9. 10. 11||9: right col.: 14 ff.; 10: 14ff; 11: 2ff||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 073 01||73||1-17||Daimler Sustainability Report 2008||11||18ff||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 073 19||73||19-44||IBM 2007||6||2 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 074 01||74||1ff (entire page)||IBM 2007||7||1 ff.||BauernOpfer|
|Msc/Fragment 077 18||77||18-42||Steurer et al 2008||12, 13||12: last paragraph; 13: 1ff||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 078 01||78||1ff (entire page)||Steurer et al 2008||13, 14||13: 19ff; 14: 1ff||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 079 01||79||1ff (entire page)||Steurer et al 2008||14, 15||14: 18ff; 15: 1ff||KomplettPlagiat|
|Msc/Fragment 097 11||97||11-17||Wikipedia Adam Smith 2007||Internetquelle||-||KomplettPlagiat|
Remark on the colouring
The colouring is automatically generated and shows text parallels. Its purpose is to facilitate the orientation of the reader, it does not, however, automatically diagnose plagiarism of any kind. In order to form a judgement about a certain text parallel one should consult the text itself.
Remark on the line numbering
When identifying a fragment with line numbers everything that contains text (except for the page header and/or footer) is counted, including headings. However, charts and tables, including their captions, are usually not counted.
34 reviewed fragments