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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 48, Zeilen: 7-23
Quelle: Matyjaszewski and Spanswick 2005
Seite(n): 26, 27, Zeilen: 26:right col. 1-3.5-17; 27:left col. 1-10
2.3.3 Living/controlled radical polymerization

As already outlined conventional free radical polymerization (FRP) has many advantages over other polymerization processes. Nearly 50 % of all commercial synthetic polymers are prepared using radical chemistry, providing a spectrum of materials for a range of markets [Mat02a]. However, the major limitation of FRP is poor control over some of the key elements of the process that would allow the preparation of well-defined polymers with controlled molecular weight, polydispersity, composition, chain architecture, and site-specific functionality.

Controlled radical polymerization (CRP) provides such control, leading to an unprecedented opportunity in materials design, including the ability to prepare bioconjugates, organic/inorganic composites, and surface-tethered copolymers [Mat05]. A number of CRP method has been developed and the three most promising are: stable free radical polymerization (SFRP), the most common of it is nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP) [Geo93, Haw01] but may also include organometallic species [Way94]; transition-metal-catalyzed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) [Kat95, Wan95]; and degenerative transfer with alkyl iodides [Mat28], methacrylate macromonomers [Moa96], and dithioesters via reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization [Chie98, Des00].


[Chi98] Chiefari, J.; Chong, Y. K.; Ercole, F.; Krstina, J.; Jeffery, J.; Le, T. P. T.; Mayadunne, R. T. A.; Meijs, G. F.; Moad, C. L.; Moad, G.; Rizzardo, E.; Thang, S. H. Macromolecules 1998, 31, 5559.

[Geo93] Georges, M. K.; Veregin, R. P. N.; Kazmaier, P. M.; Hamer, G. K. Macromolecules 1993, 26, 2987.

[Haw01] Hawker, C.J.; Bosman, A.W.; Harth, E. Chem. Rev. 2001, 101, 3661.

[Kat95] Kato, M.; Kamigaito, M.; Sawamoto, M; Higashimura, T. Macromolecules 1995, 28, 1721.

[Mat02a] Matyjaszewski, K.; Davis, T. in Handbook of Radical Polymerization, John Willey & Sons, New Jersey, 2002.

[Mat05] Matyjaszewski K; Spanswick J. Materials today, 2005, 8, 26.

[Wan95] Wang, J. S.; Matyjaszewski, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 5614.

[page 26]

Conventional free radical polymerization (FRP) has many advantages over other polymerization processes. [...] Nearly 50% of all commercial synthetic polymers are prepared using radical chemistry, providing a spectrum of materials for a range of markets1. However, the major limitation of FRP is poor control over some of the key elements of the process that would allow the preparation of well-defined polymers with controlled molecular weight, polydispersity, composition, chain architecture, and site-specific functionality.

CRP provides such control, leading to an unprecedented opportunity in materials design, including the ability to prepare bioconjugates, organic/inorganic composites, and surface-tethered copolymers (Fig. 1).

[page 27]

A number of CRP methods have been developed and the three most promising are: stable free radical polymerization (SFRP), most commonly nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP)11,12 but may also include organometallic species13 (Fig. 3, scheme 1); transition-metal-catalyzed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)14,15 (Fig. 3, scheme 2); and degenerative transfer with alkyl iodides16, methacrylate macromonomers17, and dithioesters via reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization18,19 (Fig. 3, scheme 3).


1. Matyjaszewski, K., and Davis, T., (eds.), Handbook of Radical Polymerization, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, (2002)

11. Georges, M. K., et al., Macromolecules (1993) 26 (11), 2987

12. Hawker, C. J., et al., Chem. Rev. (2001) 101 (12), 3661

13. Wayland, B. B., et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1994) 116 (17), 7943

14. Kato, M., et al., Macromolecules (1995) 28 (5), 1721

15. Wang, J.-S., and Matyjaszewski, K., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1995) 117 (20), 5614

16. Matyjaszewski, K., et al., Macromolecules (1995) 28 (6), 2093

17. Moad, C. L., et al., Macromolecules (1996) 29 (24), 7717

18. Chiefari, J., et al., Macromolecules (1998) 31 (16), 5559

19. Destarac, M., et al., Macromol. Rapid Comm. (2000) 21 (15), 1035

Anmerkungen

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There is no entry for [Mat28] in Bsi's list of references. (How could there be one?)

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