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Acute effects of garlic extract on spreading depression and synaptic activity in rat brain slices

von Dr. Claudia Marschollek

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[1.] Clm/Fragment 015 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 18:17:22 Singulus
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 15, Zeilen: 1-11
Quelle: El Harrak 2009
Seite(n): 6, Zeilen: 6-16
Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Leao [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of CSD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Kaube and Goadsby, 1994; Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, one of the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application to the neuronal tissues (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been proven to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier investigations (Martins-Ferreira et al., 2000; Bradley et al., 2001). Changes in extracellular K+ concentration might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson & Sykova, 1998). Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Lea˜o [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of SD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been shown to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging and imaging studies (Bradley et al., 2001). In any case, changes in extracellular K+ concentration themselves might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson and Sykova, 1998).
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[2.] Clm/Fragment 015 18 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-08 21:21:11 Singulus
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, James et al 2001, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 15, Zeilen: 18-24
Quelle: James et al 2001
Seite(n): 267, Zeilen: left col 7-20
During eliciting of CSD the concentration of extracellular K+ rapidly rises (between 40-60mM), causing brief neuronal excitation then depolarization and a period of electrical silence during which DC potential at the brain surface falls. In tandem, [Na+]o and [Cl-]o levels decrease as these ions enter cells. Consequently, water enters cells, the extracellular compartment is reduced, and cells swell. Ca2+ ions also move inwards, but slightly later than the outward movement of K+, suggesting that Ca2+ movements follow K+ fluxes. Additional negative ion species move outwards to maintain electrical balance, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate probably [being the most important (Somjen et al., 2001).]

Somjen GG. Mechanisms of spreading depression and hypoxic spreading depression-like depolarization. Physiol Rev.; 2001;81:1065-96.

During CSD initiation the concentration of extracellular K+, [K+]o, rapidly rises, causing brief neuronal excitation then depolarization and a period of electrical silence during which the direct current (DC) potential at the brain surface falls. In tandem, [Na+]o and [Cl-]o levels decrease as these ions enter cells. Consequently, water enters cells, the extracellular space is reduced, and cells swellb. Ca2+ ions also move inwards, but slightly later than the outward movement of K+, suggesting that Ca2+ movements follow K+ fluxes. Additional negative ion species move outwards to maintain electrical balance, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate probably being the most importantc.

b Nicholson, C. and Kraig, R.P. (1981) The Application of Ion-Selective Microelectrodes (Zeuthen, T., ed.), pp. 217–238, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press

c Szerb, J.C. (1991) Glutamate release and spreading depression in the fascia dentata in response to microdialysis with high K+: role of glia. Brain Res. 542, 259–265

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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