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Autor     Martin Parfett
Titel    What is EDI? A Guide to Electronic Data Interchange
Ausgabe    2nd edition
Jahr    1992

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    9


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Svr/Fragment 032 21 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-02-18 19:13:42 [[Benutzer:|]]
Fragment, Gesichtet, Parfett 1992, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr, Verschleierung

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SleepyHollow02
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 32, Zeilen: 21-23
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 5, Zeilen: 16 ff.
The origins of EDI may be tracked down to the United States when in the 1960s various industry sectors (airlines, car manufacturing and health) established the idea of EDI. EDI is not new. Its origins may be traced back to the United States when in the 1960s various industry sectors (airlines, car manufacturing and health) established EDI trials, albeit involving, in comparison with today’s technology, poorly developed standards and inflexible communications links.
Anmerkungen

No source is given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[2.] Svr/Fragment 034 02 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-05-21 14:58:26 [[Benutzer:|]]
Fragment, Gesichtet, Parfett 1992, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr, Verschleierung

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SleepyHollow02
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 34, Zeilen: 2-11
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 49, Zeilen: 9 ff.
Computer Systems, whether big or small, are today considered to be an integral part of most trading operations. The data for such systems will typically be entered manually before processing and subsequently written to such output documents as invoices, orders, acknowledgements, delivery notes, etc., which are then typically distributes via the postal services. With EDI, this data is extracted in an electronic form, structured according to the appropriate in-house file format. This is subsequently converted to an agreed document format standard and is the in a suitable form for transfer via some form of EDI network function, to the relevant trading partner. When received, the information will be decoded into the electronic in-house format of the receiving company. Computer systems, whether micro, mini or mainframe are now considered to be an integral part of most trading operations. The data for such systems will typically be entered manually before being processed and subsequently written to such output documents as invoices, orders, acknowledgements and delivery notes. These documents are then normally distributed via the postal services.

With EDI, data is extracted in an electronic form, structured according to the appropriate in-house file format. This is subsequently converted to an agreed document format standard and is then in a suitable form for transfer, via some form of EDI network function, to the relevant trading partner. When received, the information will be de-coded from the agreed EDI standard format and converted into one suitable for their in-house system.

Anmerkungen

A source is only given for Figure 6, which is below this text portion.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[3.] Svr/Fragment 035 20 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-03-02 15:24:42 [[Benutzer:|]]
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Parfett 1992, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr

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Seite: 35, Zeilen: 9-10, 20-28
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 40, 42, Zeilen: 40: 20 ff.; 42: 6 ff.
The desirable solution for all trading partners is to agree upon common standards from converting data from and into their in-house systems.

[...]

Message refers to a specific Type of EDI dialogue, which is formed to achieve a particular trade function. Functional Groups are groups of messages of the same type, e.g. all purchase orders to one company. Interchange is the envelope that contains the message standards and functional groups thereof. Interchange forms the entirety of an EDI communication between trading partners. Syntax Rules effectively specify the grammar for EDI dialogue. Message Design Guidelines allow groups engaged in designing new messages or modifying existing messages to do so in a consistent manner, which will allow other users to understand them.

The desirable solution is for all trading partners to agree to adopt a common standard for their in-house systems, which would remove any requirement for conversion routines.

[page 42]

A message is a specific type of EDI dialogue which is formed to achieve a particular trade function. [...]

- Functional Groups.

These refer to groups of messages of the same type, eg all purchase orders to one company.

- Interchange.

The interchange forms the entirety of an EDI communication between trading partners. It is the envelope which contains the messages and functional groups thereof.

[...]

- Syntax Rules.

The syntax rules effectively specify the grammar for EDI dialogue. [...]

- Message Design Guidelines.

Message design guidelines allow groups engaged in designing new messages or modifying existing messages to do so in a consistent manner, which will allow other users to understand them.

Anmerkungen

The source is given only for a literal quote top of page that is part of the previous chapter.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[4.] Svr/Fragment 036 07 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-02-18 19:48:53 [[Benutzer:|]]
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Parfett 1992, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 36, Zeilen: 7-14
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 49, Zeilen: 18 ff.
EDI standard format are converted into a format suitable for their in-house system. The data can then be inserted into a suitable in-house file ready for subsequent processing by the appropriate application software. However, studies have shown that many companies, especially in SMEs, often printed out the received EDI message (Parfett 1992: 49).

The basic aspects, which need to be considered when looking at EDI software, as illustrated above are: (i) Data extraction, (ii) Data encoding, (iii) Data transmission, (iv) Data receipt, (v) Data de-coding, and (vi) Data insertion (Emmelhainz 1990).

When received, the information will be de-coded from the agreed EDI standard format and converted into one suitable for their in-house system. The data can then be inserted into a suitable in-house file ready for subsequent processing by the appropriate application software. However, it must be said that in many initial installations, especially in SMEs, the received EDI message is often printed out.

The above is a simple description of the EDI process but one which illustrates the basic aspects which need to be considered when looking at EDI software. These are:

- data extraction;
- data encoding;
- data transmission;
- data receipt;
- data de-coding;
- data insertion.
Anmerkungen

The source is given, but it is not made clear that the text is so extensively copied - no quotation marks, and that the copying continues also after the reference.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[5.] Svr/Fragment 037 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-05-21 15:52:12 [[Benutzer:|]]
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Parfett 1992, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 37, Zeilen: 17-18, 21-29
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 59, 61, Zeilen: 59: last 6 lines; 61: 7 ff., last paragraph
VANs comprise two components, a network and an application. [...] The application provides added value to data network and allows users to purchase facilities as electronic mail, on-line database access, and EDI. (Emmelhainz 1990: 17).

VANs offer different Services: (i) Network Services: Connects Network Services and has high level of security and systems resilience. (ii) Post/ Mailbox Services: Often referred to having 'clearing house' or 'store and forward' functions. (iii) Enabling Software Services: VAN suppliers will often also offer software, both to make connection to the network and to convert in-house document standards to and from an adopted trade standard.

[page 59]

VANs comprise two components:

- a network;
- an application.

The application provides added value to data networks and allows users to purchase facilities such as electronic mail, on-line database access, and EDI.

[page 61]

The following services are typical of those provided by VAN suppliers:

Network Service

A network service connects trading partners and has high levels of security and systems resilience, and may provide multiple routing paths and physical links.

Postbox/Mailbox Service

This service is often referred to as the central ‘clearing house’ or ‘store-and-forward’ function of the third-party VAN network.

[...]

The VAN supplier will often also offer software, both to make connection to the network and to convert in-house document standards to and from an adopted trade standard.

Anmerkungen

The actual source is given at the end of the page; but it is not made clear, that most of the text is copied literally.

The reference to Emmelhainz (1990) is misleading, since this text cannot be found there. These sentences are intermingled with ones documented at Fragment 037 01 which are from that source.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[6.] Svr/Fragment 040 09 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-02-18 20:02:32 [[Benutzer:|]]
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Parfett 1992, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 40, Zeilen: 9-29
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 2, 12, 13, 17, Zeilen: 2: 13 ff.; 12: last 5 lines; 13: 5 ff.; 17: 2 ff.
EDI investment projects used to be justified on the basis of savings on postal charges and processing charges alone, and figures were calculated from the amount saved on every order raised or invoice processed. But time and EDI have moved on. There is a greater realization that EDI is just an enabler, and the mayor benefits that derive from the use of today's computer and telecommunications revolution will be in the change in business relationships and practices that use of timely and accurate information can bring (Parfett 1992: 2).

Parfett (1992: 12-13) concludes from a survey that the most important arguments for implementing EDI are:

- Strategic benefits - To increase the competitive edge (68%): Of crucial, longterm significance to the functioning of the organization. These benefits will affect the very business the company is undertaking, i.e. its central operating function.

- Operational benefits - To reduce costs (56%): Of mayor importance to daily operations of the company, usually only impacting on certain department within the organization.

Benefits from future opportunities - To provide new business opportunities (45%): EDI is not necessarily seen to be crucial to the current operations of the company, but as offering potential future benefits. The list of opportunity benefits includes such factors as enhanced image and competitive edge, which although perceived as beneficial, are difficult to quantify.

Justification for EDI was on the basis of savings on postal charges and processing charges alone and figures were calculated for the amount saved on every order raised or invoice processed. But time and EDI have moved on. There is a greater realisation that EDI is just an enabler and the major benefits derived from the use of today’s computer and telecommunications revolution will be in the changes in business relationships and practices that use of timely and accurate information can bring.

[page 12]

The most important ones cited were:

- to increase competitive edge 68% of respondents

- to reduce costs 56%

- to provide new businessopportunities 45%

[page 13]

Of crucial, long-term significance to the functioning of the organisation. These benefits will affect the very business the company is undertaking, ie its central operating function.

- Operational

Of major importance to the daily operations of the company, usually only impacting on certain departments within the organisation.

- Opportunity

Not necessarily crucial to the current operations of the company, but seen as offering potential future benefits.

[page 17]

The list of opportunity benefits includes such factors as enhanced image and competitive edge, which although perceived as beneficial, are difficult to quantify.

Anmerkungen

The source is given, but it is not made clear that the text is so extensively similar - no quotation marks.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[7.] Svr/Fragment 041 09 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-05-21 20:33:44 [[Benutzer:|]]
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Seite: 41, Zeilen: 9-11, 15-18
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 16, Zeilen: 22 ff., 30 ff.
EDI furthermore enables suppliers to send accurate and timely invoices thus a higher proportion of invoices get paid in time.

[...] This includes the elimination of errors in transcribing information from one medium (paper) to another (computer) and the reduces [sic] chance of mismatching orders, ie. fewer good [sic] returned, and a cost reduction in repeat deliveries to put errors right and reduction of redundant work.

EDI enables suppliers to send accurate and timely invoices. [...] The net result is that a higher proportion of invoices get paid on time.

[...]

This includes the elimination of errors in transcribing information from one medium (paper) to another (computer) and the reduced chance of mismatching orders, ie fewer goods returned, and a reduction in repeat deliveries to put errors right.

Anmerkungen

The source is given some lines above, but it is not made clear that the content is literally copied from there, as there are no quotation marks.

Sichter
(Schumann), SleepyHollow02


[8.] Svr/Fragment 042 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-05-21 20:34:44 [[Benutzer:|]]
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 42, Zeilen: 1-5, 14-19
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 14, 19, Zeilen: 14: 19 ff.; 19: 29 ff.
[EDI facilitates the adoption of these JIT techniques by providing the timely and] accurate information required on a daily basis, whilst promoting the trust and commitment required on a long-term basis (Parfett 1992: 14).

Higher bargaining power: In a highly competitive market, EDI can be useful as it provides the ability to offer significant cuts in product delivery time, which may be the difference between winning and loosing a contract. (Parfett 1992: 14).

[...]

3.3.1 Limited number of standard EDI documents defined

The development of EDI standards is crucial to the widespread adoption of this form of trading. The foundations to a truly international set of documents standards have been laid in the form of the EDIFACT syntax standard. However, the number of fully approved EDIFACT messages is still small and proprietary subsets or even supersets are often used (Parfett 1992: 19).

EDI facilitates the adoption of these JIT techniques by providing the timely and accurate information required on a daily basis, whilst promoting the trust and commitment required on a long-term basis. [...]

Terms of trade dictated by bargaining power

In a highly competitive market, EDI can be a powerful weapon in a company’s corporate armoury. The ability to offer significant cuts in product delivery time may be the difference between winning and losing a contract.

[page 19]

- Limited number of standard EDI documents defined.

The development of EDI standards is crucial to the widespread adoption of this form of trading. The foundations to a truly international set of document standards have been laid in the form of the EDIFACT syntax standard. However, as at the spring of 1991 the number of fully approved EDIFACT messages was still small and proprietary sub-sets or even super-sets are often used.
Anmerkungen

The source is given three times, but no quotation marks are used.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[9.] Svr/Fragment 043 10 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-05-21 20:35:32 [[Benutzer:|]]
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Parfett 1992, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 43, Zeilen: 10-16, 17-24
Quelle: Parfett 1992
Seite(n): 2, 19, 20, Zeilen: 2: 25 ff.; 19: 22 ff.; 20: 1, 4 ff.
It is symptomatic of electronic office communications technology that a critical mass of users is required before a 'big bang' style adoption of the techniques is achieved. Potential users must assess whether the population is sufficient for them to realize their investment, and certainly some business are more mature than others in this respect (Parfett 1992: 19-20).

The figures quoted for the number of companies using EDI vary from source to source. [...] The companies using EDI come from a range of business sectors, including retail, manufacturing, transport, construction, finance and the public sector (Parfett 1992: 49).

3.3.3 Legal Problems

The legal aspects include the provision of new forms of contract, and deciding when and where the contract is formed. This issue is of particular importance as EDI transactions cross national boundaries. Computer fraud and theft of data need also be addressed (Parfett 1992: 19).

The figures quoted for the number of companies using EDI seems to vary with every article that you read. [...]

The companies at present using EDI come from a range of business sectors, including retail, manufacturing, transport, construction, finance and the public sector.

[page 19]

The legal aspects include the provision of new forms of contract, and deciding when and where the contract is formed, an issue of some importance where EDI transactions cross national boundaries. Possible computer fraud and theft of data (can electronic data be stolen?) need also to be addressed.

[...]

It is symptomatic of electronic office communications technology that a critical mass of users is required before a ‘big bang’ style

[page 20]

adoption of the techniques is achieved. [...] Potential users must assess whether the population is sufficient for them to realise their investment, and certainly some business sectors are more mature than others in this respect.
Anmerkungen

The source is given three times, but it is not made clear that the text is so extensively similar - no quotation marks are used.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann