Overview

  • Problematic text parallels can be found in the following chapters (state of analysis: XXX):
  • 1 Introduction 1, 2, 3, 4
    • 1.1 Initial situation and defining the problem 4, 5, 7, 8
    • 1.2 Structure of the dissertation 9, 10 – [almost completely (except 1 sentence)]
  • 2 Objective of the dissertation 11, 12
  • 3 Theoretical foundation 14
    • 3.1 Keynesian Theorie [sic] 14, 15,16
    • 3.2 Theories of management 17
      • 3.2.1 Classical management theories 17, 18 – [almost completely (except last sentence)]
      • 3.2.2 Post classical management theories 18, 19
    • 3.3 Demographic change and its implication of HR management 21 – [completely]
      • 3.3.1 The demographic development in Germany 21, 22, 23 – [almost completely (except last sentence and fig. 9)]
      • 3.3.2 Effects of demographic change in the health care market 23, 24 – [completely]
      • 3.3.3 Attempts to explain the scarcity of sought-after qualifications 24, 25 – [completely]
    • 3.4 Human image of generations in working life 25
      • 3.4.1 Generation-specific values and needs at a glance 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 – [completely]
      • 3.4.2 Limitation and demarcration [sic] of Gerneration [sic] Y 29, 30 – [completely (text)]
        • 3.4.2.1 Veterans 30 – [completely]
        • 3.4.2.2 Baby Boomers 30, 31 – [completely]
        • 3.4.2.3 Generation X 31 – [completely]
      • 3.4.3 Characteristics of Generation Z 31, 32 – [almost completely (except 2 sentences)]
      • 3.4.4 Characteristics of Generation Y 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37
    • 3.5 Specifically HR Management to increase employer attractiveness 38 – [completely]
      • 3.5.1 The concept of personnel management 38, 39 – [completely (text)]
      • 3.5.2 The term health professional 39 – [almost completely (except last sentence)]
      • 3.5.3 The concept of employer attractiveness 39, 40 – [completely (text)]
    • 3.6 Influencing factors on employer attractiveness 41 – [completely]
      • 3.6.1 Meeting occupational needs as a prerequisite for employer attractiveness 41, 42, 43 – [completely]
      • 3.6.2 Employer attractiveness factors of Generation Y 43, 44, 45 – [completely]
  • 4 Methodology 46
    • 4.1 Questions of research and differentiation of hypotheses 46, 47
    • 4.2 Research design and type of examination 47, 48, 49
    • 4.3 Objective of investigation 49
    • 4.4 Operationalizing the term employer attractiveness 49, 50
      • 4.4.1 Questionnaire design for recording the attractiveness factors 50, 51 – [completely (text)]
      • 4.4.2 Recording of the generation differences regarding influencing factors on employer attractiveness 51, 52 – [completely (text)]
      • 4.4.3 Assessment of the need for generation-specific alignment of personnel activities 52 – [completely (text)]
      • 4.4.4 Recording the non-fulfillment of job-related needs and resulting change intentions 52 – [completely (text)]
    • 4.5 Framework and approach [52]
      • 4.5.1 Expert interviews [52]
      • 4.5.2 Pre-Test [53]
      • 4.5.3 Sampling method 53, 54, 55
      • 4.5.4 Data analysis 56
  • 5 Results 57
    • 5.1 Descriptive analysis of items [57]
      • 5.1.1 Region of workplace [57]
      • 5.1.2 Generation division 60
      • 5.1.3 Highest level of education [60]
      • 5.1.4 Current position within the organisation 62
      • 5.1.5 Relevant work experience [64]
      • 5.1.6 Size of organisation [65]
      • 5.1.7 Least bearable situation [67]
    • 5.2 Descriptive analysis of dependent and independent variables [68]
      • 5.2.1 Description of dependent variables 68, 69, 70 – [completely (text)]
      • 5.2.2 Description of independent variables 71, 72, 73, 74
      • 5.2.3 Presentation of the results of the open question 74
    • 5.3 Aggregation of data [75]
      • 5.3.1 Description of the scale values 75
      • 5.3.2 Factor analysis 75 – [completely (text)]
      • 5.3.3 Summary of the desired employer Generation Y 77 – [completely (text)]
    • 5.4 Inferential statistic analysis: Results of research on basis of hypotheses 79
      • 5.4.1 Influence of the generation affiliation on information gathering 79
      • 5.4.2 Influence of generational affiliation on job-related needs 83
      • 5.4.3 Influence of non-fulfillment of job-related needs and the workers´ intention to change the employer with regard to Generation Y 85
  • 6 Discussion of findings [88]
    • 6.1 Discussion of generation specific orientation of personnel management 88
    • 6.2 Discussion of employer attractiveness from the point of view of the preferable Generation Y 89
    • 6.3 Discussion of the desired profile of a Generation Y employer of choice 89, 90
    • 6.4 Recommendations 90, 92
    • 6.5 Contributions to Theory [93]
    • 6.6 Contributions to Managerial Practice [94]
    • 6.7 Contributions to Pedagogical Practice [95]
    • 6.8 Limitations and suggestions for future research 95, 96
  • 7 Conclusion [98].

Prominent findings

  • More than XX% of the pages of the dissertation's main text contain plagiarized passages. Over XXX of the main text is translated almost verbatim from around XXX different sources. These sources are mostly available on the open internet, generally without any or the proper reference.
  • The plagiarized passages often consist of whole paragraphs. Numerous entire pages and even complete sections of the thesis are taken from just one source.
    • Entire pages taken from a single source can be found on the pages: 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 56
    • Examples of complete sections taken from a single source:
      • Section "3.4.2.1 Veterans" on page 30 is translated word-for-word from a bachelor thesis, Wagner 2015, without any reference.
      • Section 3.6 (including subsections 3.6.1 and 3.6.2) extending from page 41 to 45 is taken from Ruthus 2013.

Source issues

  • Ruthus (2013): (Ruthus, 2013), the source text for large parts of this thesis, is mentioned several times within the thesis. However. it is not identified as the central source text for this comprehensive translation process.
  • Out of XX sources identified for documented text parallels, XX of them are not mentioned in the thesis at all.
  • There are several phantom references, in-text references that are not elaborated in the reference section.
    See, for example, the following documented text sections, which include 'phantom references':
  • There are some in-text references found in the text of the dissertation that do not actually correspond with what is being asserted in the previous sentence or paragraph. These can be referred to as garnish references, they are used to give the impression of scholarship without correctly attributing a statement or summary to the true source. See, for example, the following documented text sections:
    • Fragment 001 02 is referenced as coming from (Institute of German Economic, 2016) (available online). None of the information given in the documented sentence can be taken from there. The beginning of the sentence is translated word-for-word from iwd.de 2017, the sentence was shortend a little in the end compared to the actual source.
    • Fragment 014 14: There is no information about the "German Constitution Law Article 109 (2)" in (Heise, 2005).
    • Fragment 030 22: One sentece is referenced as coming from (Watkins, 2012). While (Watkins, 2012) deals with a related topic, the information given in this sentence is not found there, the text is, however, an alomost verbatim translation of the text found in (Ruthus, 2013).
    • Fragment 031 20: This section is referenced as coming from (Nagy et al., 2017). Even though (Nagy et al., 2017) deals with a related topic and some of the information given in the section might be derrived from there it is very clear that the text is taken from Wikipedia Generation Z 2016 almost verbatim.
    • Fragment 038 03: Lindner-Lohmann et al., 2016) is arbitrarily given as the source for a sentence, which is translated word-for-word from (Ruthus 2013).

Other observations

According to the supervisor's evaluation paper (PDF) the author "started her PH.D. studies in 2017 in the part-time of studies".

Irregularities in the results section

While Vroniplag Wiki is usually restricted to the documentation of plagiarism, there are several problematic observations in the results section of the thesis that can be documented on the basis of the published thesis alone. This is done here.

  • Pages 61-62:
    • It is claimed that all study participants, who are assigned to Generation Z (n=175) hold an academic degree. "With 100% academic degreee, the Generation Z represents the clearest difference to all other Generations [sic]." (p. 61, see also: Fig. °22 Level of education referred to generations, p. 62)
    • For information on assignment to generations, see p. 117, question 8: "Year of birth and generational division: [...] Year of birth after 2000 (Generation Z)."
    • The study was conducted May through July 2019 (see p. 49). Accordingly, the people assigned to Generation Z are at most 18 years old. It seems very unrealistic that all these people hold an academic degree. In the German education system one hast to complete the Abitur (around the age of 18 years) and then at least 3 years of study before an academic degree can be obtained.
  • Pages 75-78:
    • On page 75 the author alleges that the "following figures show the factors used in the further course of calculating statistical correlations according to the procedure described".
    • The number of factors extracted per class of needs can be found in figures 39 to 41 on pages 76 to 77. You learn that 6 factors are extracted for basic needs (Fig. °39), 3 factors are extracted for social needs (Fig. °40) and 3 factors are extracted for growth needs (Fig. °41). This results in a total of 12 extracted factors. (It remains unclear which factors these are and which items load on these factors.)
    • On page 77 the author alleges that figure 42 shows "the extracted factors in terms of employer attractiveness sorted by importance - as measured by Generation Y."
    • However, contrary to expectations, 14 factors are then listed in figure 42 on page 78. They are not, as announced, ordered according to importance in relation to Generation Y. Factor labels (translated) and order in which the factors are presented in figure 42 are identical in Ruthus 2013 (see p. 140 in Ruthus 2013).
  • Pages 81-82:
    • It is stated that results regarding the frequency of use of information channels are presented in figures 44 and 45 (see page 79 for information regarding range: "[...] survey participants should assess different information channels (1 = regularly, 2 = occasionally, 3 = rarely, 4 = I do not use)"). Given this range from 1 to 4, the mean values greater than 4 presented in the figures seem implausible.
    • In addition on page 81 the figure caption reads: "Fig. °44 Significant mean differences between the generations I (m: 1=very important, 5=very unimportant)". This figure is supposed to show frequencies of use of different information channel x generation. Information channels were not evaluated regarding importance (see questionnaire p. 120). Ergo, figure caption is inconsistent with content of figure.
    • Copies of illustrations in figures 44, 45 are found in the appendix (pp. 147-152), 7 of the 11 illustrations in figures 44, 45 are copied twice.
  • Pages 86-87:
    • Correlation coefficients are presented based on calculations including entire sample (N=1346) on page 86 in figure 48.
    • On page 87 the author claims: "The results of the study support hypothesis 3: There is a significant correlation between the non-fullfillment of job-related needs in the German health care sector and the employees intention to change with regard to Generation Y". This claim seems unfounded as there are no correlation coefficients and tests of significance presented for the sub-sample Generation Y (n=597).

Critical reception by the thesis supervisor and the opponents

Since the reviews of the supervisor of the doctoral thesis and of the three opponents were also published online, this allows to cite their critical comments and overall evaluations:

  • Assoc. prof. Helena Chládková, Ph.D.: Supervisor´s evaluation of the study and dissertation thesis of S[..] A[..], M. Sc. (2020-01-02) (PDF)
    • "The aim of the thesis is clearly defined, the methodology correspondents to the stated objective. Used methodology is very suitable. S[..] used relevant scientific resources in the theoretical part of her thesis. Results and findings are interesting, selected methods are used in correct way. The elaborated dissertation proves her good ability to acquire information, including scientific literature, internet and own experience."
    • "S[..] is a very diligent and hardworking student. During her studies she published five papers, where she presenters the results of her research."
  • doc. Ing. Milan Palát, Ph.D.: Opponent review of dissertation thesis (2020-02-14) (PDF)
    • "The dissertation thesis is based on a sufficient literature survey and relevant research data. The literature sources cited in this thesis prove a satisfactory orientation in the given research area. However, the chapter Theoretical foundation often mixes theoretical and practical aspects of the given research area." (p. [1])
    • "[...] some headings in presented tables remained in German language." (p. [2])
    • "From the formal point of view, the thesis reaches the required level with an exception of low quality charts and tables, small typing errors and some German headings." (p. [2])
    • "[...] fulfils elementary requirements on dissertations of a doctoral study programme." (p. [2])
    • "The author proved a capability of independent research and the dissertation thesis represents certain contribution to theory, practice and education." (p. [3])
  • doc. Ing. Martina Fejfarová, Ph.D.: Reviewers Report (2020-01-24) (PDF)
    • "The list of references seems to be made according to the Harvard referencing style but there some mistakes." (p. 1)
    • "Although the author has managed to summarize the theoretical background relatively well, I recommend to better deduce the main objective of the dissertation from the theoretical background. The main objective is not clearly defined." (p. 1)
    • "There are some typing mistakes and mistakes in used referencing style. All figures and tables should be in the English language." (p. 3)
    • "[Conclusion:] The submitted dissertation is processed on a very good professional level. The author demonstrated orientation in the chosen issue and the ability to undertake independent scientific work. The content and scope of the dissertation correspond to the requirements for the dissertation." (p. 4)
  • doc. Ing. Lea Kubíčková, PhD.: Opponent Review of Dissertation Thesis (2020-01-20) (PDF)
    • "After reading the thesis I honestly cannot say that the author would close scientific gaps, I can see rather practical benefits in the dissertation. [...] Overall, however, it is necessary to say that the aim of the work is not clearly and factually defined and after reading 3 pages of the text, I am not able to clearly determine what the main aim of this work is.
      Literature review uses very old resources, the author begins the chapter with citations from 1983 and 1984."
      (p. [1])
    • "To sum it up - literary research contains many sources, many of them are obsolete, some parts of literary research do not have a direct link to the stated goal." (p. [2])
    • "Let me comment on the tables in Chapter 5 - it is not good that they are not translated from German when the work is written in English.
      In terms of form, I would point out that in this chapter there are plenty of pictures (some of the pictures should have been included in the attachment,) unnecessarily large charts and tables, as well as half-empty pages. In total, 20 half-empty pages do not give me a sufficient range of dissertation results."
      (p. [2])
    • "Formally, I would recommend the author to correct English - the work contains a lot of typing errors and grammatical errors (even in the titles of the chapters, e.g. title of chap. 3.1, as mentioned above)." (p. [3])
    • "Although the thesis is from my point of view weak and at a relatively low level, the work meets the main requirements for similar type of work and
      I recommend work for the defense
      and after successful defense I propose to award academic title Doctor (Ph.D.)."
      (p. [3])

Declaration, Regulations

  • In the "Statutory declaration" (p. V), the author states:
    "Herewith I declare that I have written my final thesis: [...] by myself and all sources and data used are quoted in the list of references."
  • The "Study and Examination Regulations of Mendel University in Brno" (PDF) valid at the time of submission specify:
    • Article 24
      Doctoral study program
      "(1) Doctoral study programmes are, pursuant to Section 47 of the Act, focused on scientific research and independent creative activity in the fields of research or development or on independent theoretical and creative activity in the arts."
    • Article 33
      State doctoral examinations
      "(1) The state doctoral examinations verify the ability and readiness for independent activity in the field of research or development or for independent theoretical and creative activities in the arts."
    • Article 34
      Dissertation
      "(1) A dissertation must include original and published results or results received for publication."
  • The Czech Republic's "The Higher Education Act" of 22 April 1998 (PDF, current version, published 31 August, 2018) specifies in section 47c
    The Proceeding at a Public Higher Education Institution concerning Statement of Invalidity of State Examinations or Their Parts or the Thesis Defence:
    • "(2) The Rector shall express his/her decision of invalidity of the state examinations or their parts or of the thesis defence if the person whose state examinations or their parts or whose thesis defence is concerned:
      • [...]
      • b) has not met or only apparently met the conditions or requirements presented by the Higher Education Act, the degree programme, and the Study and Examination Regulations for completing the state examination or its parts or the dissertation defence because of an unauthorized usage of another person’s work in gross violation of legal provisions concerning copyright protection 32) [bold mark not in original] or because of another intentional activity not mentioned in a), in case of permanent or repeated violation of good manners or in such a case where the possibility of gaining standard knowledge and skills by participants of the given degree programme was significantly disturbed.
    • (3) In case of failing to meet conditions for completion of state examinations or their parts or the dissertation defence in accordance with Paragraphs (2) a) and b), such case is deemed to present an objective state of discontinuity between the actual state of affairs and facts confirmed by the higher education diploma when a higher education diploma has been issued without the recipient having passed the state examinations or its parts or the thesis defence.
    • (4) Proceedings for expressing the invalidity are initiated ex officio. It can be initiated by the Rector as well:
      • a) at the very latest 3 years after the legal effect of the decision by which a particular person was sentenced for an intentional crime, if the case as per Paragraph (2) a) applies; or
      • b) at the very latest 3 years from the date of performing the state examination or apparently performing the state examination or its last part or of the Doctoral thesis defence [bold mark not in original], if it is the case pursuant to Paragraph (2) b).
    • (5) If the Rector has not found any reasons for the statement of invalidity of the thesis defence or its part in accordance with (2), proceedings for the statement of the invalidity shall be discontinued."
  • The "Declaration on Ensuring Research Integrity at Mendel University Brno" dated 23. September 2019 (PDF), signed by the rector, states:
"Probably the most important period for ensuring the integrity of research occurs during the doctoral studies, when it is necessary to place particular emphasis on the following areas:
• The issue of intellectual property, including the conventions on co-authorship
• Ethical aspects and the definition of misconduct in research
If not done previously, it is necessary for the doctoral candidates to become familiar with the standards and guidelines regarding professional conduct, ethics, plagiarism and proper use of citations and be aware of the importance of the explicit recognition of the work of others. It is no less important to record information and data related to research, which shall be carried out in accordance with the best practices in the relevant scientific field.
Graduates of doctoral programmes must specifically know and apply in their research the principles of ethical conduct of research and the best research practices, including the correct attribution of merit and authorship and avoidance of misconduct in research.
With regard to the above, we are determined to strengthen our efforts to educate students and employees regarding principles and procedures that underpin the integrity of research."
(p. 3)

Papers published during doctoral studies

According to the supervisor's evaluation paper (PDF) the author published 5 papers during her doctoral studies, "where she presenters [sic] the results of her research." Two of these were analyzed here:

  • Paper appeared in: Economics World (2019):
    • (co-author: Marc Breetzke) Impact of Multiproject Management in Hospital Organizations (PDF), in: Economics World, Vol. 7, Nr. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 2019), pp. 10-16. DOI: 10.17265/2328-7144/2019.01.003.
    • Findings: This paper compromises five pages containing main text. The main text consists almost entirely of unacknowledged direct translations of passages from a German dissertation published in 2018 (Harsch 2018). Comparatively small portions of text were translated word-for-word from two other sources originally published in German: 11 lines were translated from a book chapter by Gemuenden et al. (2010). Another 11 lines were translated from a dissertation by Dammer published in 2008. None of these three sources is mentioned in the text or in the list of references.
S01 col.png
  • Paper appeared in: Journal of US-China Public Administration (2019):
    • Desperation of Demographic Change in the Health Sector in Germany: Necessary Strategy Orientation for Medical Practices in the Countryside (PDF), in: Journal of US-China Public Administration, Vol. 16, Nr. 1 (Jan. 2019), pp. 7-15. DOI: 10.17265/1548-6591/2019.01.002.
    • Duplicate publication: Desperation of Demographic Change in the Health Sector in Germany: Necessary Strategy Orientation for Medical Practices in the Countryside (PDF) in: Journal of Business and Economics, ISSN 2155-7950, USA July 2019, Volume 10, No. 7, pp. 667-675 DOI: 10.15341/jbe(2155-7950)/07.10.2019/008 Academic Star Publishing Company, 2019 http://www.academicstar.us
    • Findings: This paper compromises 8 pages containing main text. The main text consists almost entirely of unacknowledged direct translations of passages from a German book chapter published in 2013 (Heil 2013). Comparatively small portions of text were translated word-for-word from two other sources originally published in German online. One passage was translated from agentur-jungesherz.de (2017). Two other passages are taken and translated from arbeitgeber.campusjaeger.de (2018) . None of these three sources is mentioned in the text or in the list of references.
S02 col.png
  • Note: The publishers of both journals Academic Star Publishing Company (Economics World) and David Publishing Company (Journal of US-China Public Administration) are on Beall’s list. This is a list of potential predatory publishers created by a librarian Jeffrey Beall. An archived version and more information on Beall's list can be found here.
  • For more details see

Statistics

  • Currently there are 92 reviewed fragments documented that are considered to be violations of citation rules. For 73 of them there is no reference given to the source used („Übersetzungsplagiate“, „Verschleierungen“ and „Komplettplagiate“). For 19 fragments the source is given, but the extent of the used text is not made clear („Bauernopfer“).
  • The publication has 99 pages that have been analyzed. On a total of 73 of these pages violations of citation rules have been documented. This represents a percentage of 73.7%. The 99 analyzed pages break down with respect to the amount of text parallels encountered as follows:
Percentage text parallels Number of pages
No text parallels documented 26
0%-50% text parallels 18
50%-75% text parallels 15
75%-100% text parallels 40
From these statistics an extrapolation of the amount of text of the publication under investigation that has been documented as problematic can be estimated (conservatively) as about 42% of the main part of the publication.
Due to technical reasons, the following sources are counted in the total above, although only fragments in the category of "Keine Wertung" (not evaluated) are documented from these sources:
Thus, there are only 21 instead of 23 actual sources documented in reviewed fragments.

Illustration

The following chart illustrates the amount and the distribution of the text parallel findings. The colours show the type of plagiarism diagnosed:

  • [...]

650

(state of analysis: XXX)

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