Assessing the Impact of XML/EDI with Real Option Valuation

von Dr. Shermin Voshmgir

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[1.] Svr/Fragment 102 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-05-30 21:30:57 [[Benutzer:|]]
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Mansfield 1961, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 102, Zeilen: 1-7
Quelle: Mansfield 1961
Seite(n): 763, Zeilen: 4 ff.
[6.3.3 Parameters that Influence Diffusion

Mansfields (1961) model builds largely around one hypothesis – “that the probability that a firm will introduce a new technique is an increasing function of the proportion of firms already using it and the profitability of doing so, but a decreasing function of the size of investment required” (1961: 762-763).] His studies showed that the rate of imitation tended to be faster for innovations that were more profitable and that required relatively small investments. Several other factors showed very low statistical significance: There was some apparent tendency for the rate of imitation to be higher when the innovation did not replace very durable equipment, and when the firms’ output was growing rapidly, and when the innovation was introduced in the more recent past.


Mansfield, E. 1961, “Technical Change and the Rate of Imitation”, Econometrica, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 741-765.

As expected, the rate of imitation tended to be faster for innovations that were more profitable and that required relatively small investments. [...]

[...] When several other factors are included in the model, the empirical results are largely inconclusive. There was some apparent tendency for the rate of imitation to be higher when the innovation did not replace very durable equipment, when the firms’ output was growing rapidly, and when the innovation was introduced in the more recent past.

Anmerkungen

Quotation marks are given for a literal quote at the beginning, but quotation marks would have also been appropriate for the following text which is copied from the same source as well.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[2.] Svr/Fragment 102 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-05-18 11:47:25 [[Benutzer:|]]
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Rogers 1983, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Svr

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Schumann
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 102, Zeilen: 8-19
Quelle: Rogers 1983
Seite(n): 15, 16, Zeilen: 15: 6 f., 15 ff., 24 f., 33 f.; 16: 3 ff.
Rogers (1962) explains the different rates of adoption by introducing 5 characteristics of Innovation: (1) Relative advantage: is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes. (as opposed to objective advantage) (the greater strategic advantage the faster it will be adopted); (2) Compatibility: is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. (if not compatible, not adopted as fast); (3) Complexity: is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use. ( the simpler the faster the adoption); (4) Triability: is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis (triability-> less uncertainty -> faster adoption); (5) Observability: is the degree to which the result of an innovation are visible to others ( the more visible, the more likely that they will adopt.

Rogers, E.M. 1962, Diffusion of Innovations, Freepress of Glencoe, New York.

Rogers, E.M. 1983, Diffusion of Innovations, 3rd ed., Collier Macmillan, London.

[page 15]

1. Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes. [...] It does not matter so much whether an innovation has a great deal of “objective” advantage. [...] The greater the perceived relative advantage of an innovation, the more rapid its rate of adoption is going to be.

2. Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. An idea that is not compatible with the prevalent values and norms of a social system will not be adopted as rapidly as an innovation that is compatible. [...]

3. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use. [...] In general, new ideas that are simpler to understand will be adopted more rapidly [...]

4. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. [...] An innovation that is trialable represents less uncertainty [...]

[page 16]

5. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. The easier it is for individuals to see the results of an innovation, the more likely they are to adopt.

Anmerkungen

Svr includes two versions of Rogers' book, the first and the third edition, in the reference section. On this page the source is given as the first edition, however the text is quite close to the definitions given in the improved and extended third edition.

The definitions from the first edition are as follows:

Rogers (1962):

[page 124] Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation is superior to ideas it supersedes.
[page 126] Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is consistent with existing values and past experiences of the adopt-[ors.]
[page 130] Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is relatively difficult to understand and use.
[page 131] Divisibility is the degree to which an innovation may be tried on a limited basis.
[page 132] Communicability is the degree to which the results of an innovation may be diffused to others.

Still, since the author is named although the wrong edition is noted, this fragment will be classified as a pawn sacrifice.

Sichter
(Schumann), WiseWoman



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