Fandom


OverviewBearbeiten

  • Problematic text parallels can be found in the following chapters (state of analysis: June 28, 2020):
  • 0. Introduction1, 2
  • 0.1. General Background of Study  2
  • 0.2. Motivation for Research   3
  • 0.3. Research Objectives and Target Audience  3
  • 0.4. Thesis Outline and Research Methodology  [4]
  • Part One  [5]
  • 1. Electronic Markets  [5]
  • 1.1. Electronic Markets vs. Traditional Markets  5, 6, 7, 8
  • 1.2. How do Electronic Markets affect traditional Market Structures?  8
  • 1.2.1 Information Phase  8, 9
  • 1.2.2 Agreement Phase  9
  • 1.2.3 Settlement Phase  9
  • 1.3. Electronic Market Theory and Reality  [9]
  • 1.3.1 Information Phase  11, 12
  • 1.3.2 Agreement Phase  13
  • 1.3.3 Settlement Phase  13, 14
  • 1.4. The next step – XML and the Semantic Web  14, 15, 16
  • 2. The Semantic Web16, 17
  • 2.1. The idea of XML  18, 19
  • 2.1.1 XML Syntax  19
  • 2.1.2 XML Structure  19, 20
  • 2.1.3 XML Style  21
  • 2.1.4 XML Navigation  22, 23
  • 2.2. Benefits of XML  23, 24
  • 2.2.1 Better Document Management  24, 25
  • 2.2.2 Better Searching Capabilities  25, 26
  • 2.2.3 Multiple uses for Hyperlinking  26
  • 2.2.4 Business Impact of XML  26, 27
  • 2.2.5 Increase in the Number of XML Applications  27, 28, 29, 30
  • 2.3. XML Applications for E-commerce  30, 31
  • 2.4. Summary and Outlook  31, 32
  • 3.1. How it works - some general  34
  • 3.1.1 EDI Message Standards  34, 35
  • 3.1.2 Components of Message Standards  35
  • 3.1.3 Converter and Communication Software  35, 36, 37
  • 3.1.4 EDI Networks  37
  • 3.1.5 Cost of setting up and EDI network  38, 39
  • 3.2. Opportunities through EDI  40
  • 3.2.1 Operational Benefits - General Cost reduction  41
  • 3.2.2 Strategic benefits  41, 42
  • 3.3. Barriers for EDI penetration    42
  • 3.3.1 Limited number of standard EDI documents defined  42, 43
  • 3.3.2 Current EDI usage  43
  • 3.3.3 Legal Problems  43
  • 3.3.4 Conclusion  43, 44
  • 3.4. EDI an the Internet  [44]
  • 3.4.1 Internet/EDI  [45]
  • 3.4.2 Web/EDI  45, 46
  • 3.4.3 XML/EDI  46, 47
  • 3.5. Summary and Outlook  47, 48
  • 4. XML/EDI48, 49
  • 4.1. The Idea of XML/EDI  49
  • 4.1.1 Fusion of Five  49, 50, 51
  • 4.1.2 XML/EDI Core Models  51, 52
  • 4.1.3 XML/EDI as a Framework  52, 53, 54
  • 4.1.4 Progress in XML/EDI Standards and Frameworks  54, 55
  • 4.2. Opportunities through XML/EDI  55
  • 4.2.1 Impact of XML on EDI  56
  • 4.2.2 Reduction of General Costs  56, 57
  • 4.2.3 Hub and Spoke Relationship Improvement  57, 58
  • 4.2.4 Consequences for Business  58
  • 4.3. Challenges of XML/EDI  59, 60
  • 4.5. Summary and Outlook  64, 65
  • Part Two [66]  66
  • 5. Assessing the Value of IT Projects66, 67
  • 5.1. The IT Productivity Paradox
  • 5.2. Traditional Methods – Investment Under Certainty  69
  • 5.2.1 Static Methods  70
  • 5.2.2 Dynamic  70, 71
  • 5.3. Investment under Uncertainty  [71]
  • 5.3.1 Decision Tree Analysis 71, 72
  • 5.3.2 Real Option Methods  72
  • 5.4. Empirical Studies of Accounting Methods used  73, 74
  • 5.5. Option Value in IT – Real Options  74
  • 5.5.1 Real Options – Some General Facts  [74]
  • 5.5.2 The Formula  75, 77
  • 5.5.3 Simplifying the calculation  77, 78
  • 5.5.4 Capturing Flexibility  80, 81
  • 5.6. Practical Application of Real Options  [81]
  • 5.6.1 Disadvantages of Real Option Models  82
  • 5.6.2 Comparison of Real Options with Net Present Value  83
  • 5.6.3 When to use Real Option Pricing Techniques  85
  • 5.6.4 Are Option Valuation Methods in Use?  86
  • 5.7. Summary and Outlook  86, 87
  • 6. XML Investment Decision as a Deferral Option87
  • 6.1. General Assumptions  88, 89
  • 6.2. Going into Details  [90]
  • 6.2.1 Project Uncertainty (σ2)  90, 92, 93, 94, 95
  • 6.2.2 Project Returns (S)  95, 96, 97
  • 6.2.3 Project Costs (X)  98
  • 6.2.4 Time Value of Money  [98]
  • 6.2.5 Time to expiration (t)  [99]
  • 6.2.6 Summary  99
  • 6.3. Company Profiles  [99]
  • 6.3.1 Determining Diffusion  99
  • 6.3.2 Type of Adopters  101
  • 6.3.3 Parameters that Influence Diffusion  102
  • 6.3.4 Market Power  103, 104
  • 6.4. Putting it all together  106
  • 6.5. Criticism  [109]
  • Appendix 1: XML Tutorial  [112]
  • Appendix 2: XML/EDI Working Groups  [146]
  • Appendix 3: XML Business Applications  [149]
  • Appendix 4: Black-Scholes Option Pricing Table  [152]
  • References  [153]

Prominent findingsBearbeiten

  • There is text parallel that could be considered plagiarism on at least 100 out of 111 pages of this thesis. This extends from the introduction to the conclusion. In many fragments the text has been slightly re-written, but there is still high similarity to the sources found.
  • Many pages consist of single sentences taken from sources and spliced together to create the appearance of own scholarship. For example, the pages
  • 2 and 32 contain portions from five different sources,
  • 55, 59, and 110 use four different sources, and
  • more than 20 pages use three different sources.
  • Although sources are sometimes given, brazen word-for-word copies (such as in Fragment 057 01) are not seldom.
  • In Fragment 099 27 the author assigns to one author a quotation that is actually taken from another and there clearly marked as statements from two different authors.
  • The rewriting of a source can lead to grammar errors, for example in Fragment 023 09.

Source issuesBearbeiten

  • The top source, which is not mentioned in the reference section, is Norman (1999). This is a master's thesis in Computer Science that was submitted to the Department of Teleinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden.
  • Out of 75 sources identified for documented text parallels, 29 of them are not mentioned in the thesis at all.
  • There are a few in-text references that are not explained in the reference section:
  • "(Klein 1997)" on page 13
  • "Benaroch and Kauffman (1999)" on page 89
  • "Götz (1996)" on pages 104 and 105.
  • A number of entries in the reference section are not in alphabetical order.

Other observationsBearbeiten

  • A few pages of the thesis (p. 10, 11, and 15) were published online by the author in 1999 as part of an XML tutorial: [1]. Although this does not preclude the acceptance of the entire text as a doctoral thesis, it would be usual to be clearly identified as such.
  • The author demonstrates the ability to use correct citation, as there are numerous direct quotations in the thesis, such as the quotation of
  • Dumbill (2001) on page 60
  • Rogers (1983) on page 99 f.
  • Mansfield (1961) on page 100, etc.
  • Page 77 refers to a table that is to be in the appendix ("Appendix 4: Black-Scholes Option Pricing Table", S. 152). However, in the PDF version there is no table on that page, just the text stating that the table shows call option values as a percent of share price.
  • In December 2002 the author published a conference paper (Assessing the Risk of IT Investment Projects with Network Externalities - PDF) that consists primarily of material from the dissertation. This is not mentioned in the paper. There are a number of passages in that paper that have been documented here as text parallels that could constitute plagiarism.
  • On the third page (unnumbered) of the PDF there is a declaration containing the following assurance:
    "Ich versichere:
    1. dass ich die Dissertation selbständig verfasst, andere als die angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel nicht benutzt und mich auch sonst keiner unerlaubten Hilfe bedient habe.
    2. [...]
    3. das [sic] dieses Exemplar mit der beurteilten Arbeit übereinstimmt."
Festlegung der Bildungsziele aus den Doktoratspflichtfächern gemäß § 17 Abs 2 lit c AHStG:
"Die Bildungsziele der Fächer der jeweiligen Studienrichtungen, welche in den Diplomstudienplänen festgelegt wurden, haben auch für das Doktoratsstudium ihre Gültigkeit. Im dritten Studienabschnitt haben die Studierenden darüber hinaus den Nachweis zu erbringen, daß sie in der Lage sind, durch eigenständige wissenschaftliche Arbeit einen Beitrag zur Forschung zu liefern, der bei Studienabschluß in Form einer Dissertation vorzulegen ist und dem im jeweiligen Fach international üblichen Standard für eine wissenschaftliche Publikation entsprechen soll."
[...]
Dissertation
"§ 3 (1) Der Bewerber um das Doktorat hat durch die Dissertation über die an eine Diplomarbeit zu stellenden Anforderungen hinaus darzutun, daß er die Befähigung zur selbständigen Bewältigung wissenschaftlicher Probleme erworben hat."
  • Dissertation (§ 62)
    "(3) Bei der Bearbeitung des Themas und der Betreuung der Studierenden sind die Bestimmungen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes zu beachten."
  • Widerruf inländischer akademischer Grade (§ 68)
    "Die Studiendekanin oder der Studiendekan hat die Verleihung des akademischen Grades zu widerrufen, wenn sich nachträglich ergibt, daß der akademische Grad insbesondere durch gefälschte Zeugnisse erschlichen worden ist."
  • "Die Zitationsstandards vor 20 Jahren waren andere und die entscheidende Frage ist nicht wieviele Worte betroffen sind sondern ob die Arbeit den damaligen State of the Art erweitert hat. Die Anwendung der Realoptionspreistheorie war zum damaligen Zeitpunkt jedenfalls innovativ." (July 7, 2020, 3:50 AM)
  • "Vor 20 Jahren war die elektronische Veröffentlichung der Dissertation nicht verpflichtend. Die freiwillige Veröffentlichung spricht gegen die Annahme eines vorsätzlichen Plagiats." (July 7, 2020, 3:53 AM)

StatisticsBearbeiten

  • Currently there are 203 reviewed fragments documented that are considered to be violations of citation rules. For 129 of them there is no reference given to the source used („Verschleierungen“ and „Komplettplagiate“). For 74 fragments the source is given, but the extent of the used text is not made clear („Bauernopfer“).
  • The publication has 111 pages that have been analyzed. On a total of 100 of these pages violations of citation rules have been documented. This represents a percentage of 90.1%. The 111 analyzed pages break down with respect to the amount of text parallels encountered as follows:
Percentage text parallels Number of pages
No text parallels documented 11
0%-50% text parallels 34
50%-75% text parallels 23
75%-100% text parallels 43
From these statistics an extrapolation of the amount of text of the publication under investigation that has been documented as problematic can be estimated (conservatively) as about 45% of the main part of the publication.
Due to technical reasons, the following sources are counted in the total above, although only fragments in the category of "Keine Wertung" (not evaluated) are documented from these sources:
Thus, there are only 71 instead of 75 actual sources documented in reviewed fragments.
The 11 fragments documented from the source Walsh (1998) are part of the Appendix (p. 112-152). They are included in the total number of reviewed fragments, but are not included in the calculation of the total amount of documented plagiarism, as this is only expressed for the main text.

IllustrationBearbeiten

The following chart illustrates the amount and the distribution of the text parallel findings. The colours show the type of plagiarism diagnosed:

  • grau="Komplettplagiat" (copy & paste): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copy is verbatim.
  • rot="Verschleierung" (disguised plagiarism): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copied text will be somewhat modified.
  • gelb="Bauernopfer" (pawn sacrifice): the source of the text parallel is mentioned, but the extent and/or the closeness of the copy to the source is not made clear by the reference.

Svr col

(state of analysis: June 28, 2020)

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